May your tenure mark a continuation of the long standing engagement between the State Department and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. I write to offer insights on Israel and Palestine based on my recent solidarity visit there along with bishops from Europe, Canada, South Africa and the United States. The year marks the fiftieth anniversary of a crippling occupation of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza, crippling for both peoples.
Background[ edit ] Early British support[ edit ] Lord Shaftesbury's "Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine", as published in the Colonial Timesin Early British political support for an increased Jewish presence in the region of Palestine was based upon geopolitical calculations.
Zionism Zionism arose in the late 19th century in reaction to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Europe. The first line states: Proposed measures to attain that goal included the promotion of Jewish settlement there, the organisation of Jews in the diasporathe strengthening of Jewish feeling and consciousness, and preparatory steps to attain necessary governmental grants.
The scheme, which had been proposed to Herzl by Joseph ChamberlainColonial Secretary in Balfour's Cabinet, following his trip to East Africa earlier in the year, [vii] had been subsequently voted down following Herzl's death by the Seventh Zionist Congress in [viii] after two years of heated debate in the Zionist Organization.
Timeline of World War I — At the meeting David Lloyd Georgethen Chancellor of the Exchequer"referred to the ultimate destiny of Palestine". The pledge excluded "portions of Syria " lying to the west of "the districts of Damascus, HomsHama and Aleppo ".
In Palestine, internationalisation was proposed,   with the form of administration to be confirmed after consultation with both Russia and Hussein;  the January draft noted Christian and Muslim interests, and that "members of the Jewish community throughout the world have a conscientious and sentimental interest in the future of the country.
Change in British Government[ edit ] In terms of British politics, the declaration resulted from the coming into power of Lloyd George and his Cabinetwhich had replaced the H. Asquith led-Cabinet in December Whilst both Prime Ministers were Liberals and both governments were wartime coalitionsLloyd George and Balfour, appointed as his Foreign Secretary, favoured a post-war partition of the Ottoman Empire as a major British war aim, whereas Asquith and his Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Greyhad favoured its reform.
British-Zionist formal negotiations[ edit ] Following the change in government, Sykes was promoted into the War Cabinet Secretariat with responsibility for Middle Eastern affairs. In Januarydespite having previously built a relationship with Moses Gaster, [xii] he began looking to meet other Zionist leaders; by the end of the month he had been introduced to Weizmann and his associate Nahum Sokolowa journalist and executive of the World Zionist Organization who had moved to Britain at the beginning of the war.
Still the Arabs could be managed, particularly if they received Jewish support in other matters. Progress of the wider war[ edit ] During the period of the British War Cabinet discussions leading up to the declaration, the war had reached a period of stalemate.
On the Western Front the tide would first turn in favour of the Central Powers in spring before decisively turning in favour of the Allies from July onwards. Allied discussions[ edit ] Balfour met Weizmann at the Foreign Office on 22 March ; two days later, Weizmann described the meeting as being "the first time I had a real business talk with him".
He was also received by Paolo Bosellithe Italian prime minister. Sonnino arranged for the secretary general of the ministry to send a letter to the effect that, although he could not express himself on the merits of a program which concerned all the allies, "generally speaking" he was not opposed to the legitimate claims of the Jews.
During the trip he spent significant time discussing Zionism with Louis Brandeisa leading Zionist and a close ally of Wilson who had been appointed as a Supreme Court Justice a year previously. Decision to prepare a declaration[ edit ] A copy of Lord Rothschild's initial draft declaration, together with its covering letter, 18 Julyfrom the British War Cabinet archives.
American consent and War Cabinet approval[ edit ] As part of the War Cabinet discussions, views were sought from ten "representative" Jewish leaders. The decision to release the declaration was taken by the British War Cabinet on 31 October This followed discussion at four War Cabinet meetings including the 31 October meeting over the space of the previous two months.
These included the views of government ministers, war allies — notably from President Woodrow Wilson — and in October, formal submissions from six Zionist leaders and four non-Zionist Jews.
There was a very strong and enthusiastic organisation, more particularly in the United States, who were zealous in this matter, and his belief was that it would be of most substantial assistance to the Allies to have the earnestness and enthusiasm of these people enlisted on our side.
To do nothing was to risk a direct breach with them, and it was necessary to face this situation. This Movement, though opposed by a number of wealthy Jews in this country, had behind it the support of a majority of Jews, at all events in Russia and America, and possibly in other countries Balfour then read a very sympathetic declaration by the French Government which had been conveyed to the Zionists, and he stated that he knew that President Wilson was extremely favourable to the Movement.
The vast majority of Jews in Russia and America, as, indeed, all over the world, now appeared to be favourable to Zionism. If we could make a declaration favourable to such an ideal, we should be able to carry on extremely useful propaganda both in Russia and America.
He proposed that the declaration from the British government should state:The Israel –Palestine conflict is one of the longest conflicts in the Middle East; these two nations have been fighting for many years, with no solution to end the war.
Both Palestine and Israel have been fighting to dominate the territory along the borders, including places like the West Bank. “Tens of thousands of Arab men, women and children fled toward the eastern outskirts of the city in cars, trucks, carts, and afoot in a desperate attempt to reach Arab territory until the Jews captured Rushmiya Bridge toward Samaria and Northern Palestine and cut them off.
Israel Shamir, a leading Russian Israeli writer, is a champion of the "One Man, One Vote, One State" solution seeking to unite Palestine & Israel in one democratic state.
Shamir's work and that of his contributors speaks to the aspirations of both the Israelis and the Palestinians seeking an end to the bloodshed, true democracy and lasting peace.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been a never-ending problem facing the two states. It began in the 19th century during the Ottoman or British rule.
This was between the Arabs living in Palestine and the Jews living in Israel. Sep 27, · News from Israel, the Middle East and the Jewish World.
Israeli-Palestinian peace talks. Analysis. David Horovitz. At warm meeting, Trump jolts Netanyahu by explicitly backing two-state solution.
The roots of this conflict lay in the late nineteenth century, when Jewish Zionist pioneers settled in Palestine/Eretz Israel (Hebrew for “the Land of Israel.”) Beginning in the early twentieth century, acts of violence were carried out by the local Palestinians against the Jews and the relations between the two peoples gradually deteriorated.