He attempted to eliminate corrupt practices by creole elites as well as rein in the opulent displays of the clergy's power, but ecclesiastical authorities in conjunction with creole elites mobilized urban plebeians to oust the viceroy. Death to bad government! Death to the heretic Lutheran [Viceroy Gelves]!
The creation of juntas in Spanish America in was a direct reaction to developments in Spain during the previous two years.
In Ferdinand VII had been convinced to abdicate by Napoleon in his favor, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. The Supreme Central Junta had led a resistance to Joseph's government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reverses resulting in the loss of the northern half of the country.
On February 1,French troops took Seville and gained control of most of Andalusia. As news of this arrived throughout Spanish America during the next three weeks to nine months—depending on time it took goods and people to travel from Spain—political fault lines appeared.
Royal officials and Spanish Americans were split between those who supported the idea of maintaining the status quo—that is leaving all the government institutions and officers in place—regardless of the developments in Spain, and those who thought that the time had come to establish local rule, initially through the creation of juntas, in order to preserve the independence of Spanish America from the French or from a rump government in Spain that could no longer legitimately claim to rule a vast empire.
It is important to note that, at first, the juntas claimed to carry out their actions in the name of the deposed king and did not formally declare independence.
A few juntas initially chose to recognize the Regency, nevertheless the creation of juntas challenged the authority of all sitting royal officials and the right of the government in Spain to rule in the Americas.
In the months following the establishment of the Regency, it became clear that Spain was not lost, and furthermore the government was effectively reconstituting itself.
The Regency successfully convened the Cortes Generalesthe traditional parliament of the Spanish Monarchy, which in this case included representatives from the Americas. The Regency and Cortes began issuing orders to, and appointing, royal officials throughout the empire.
Those who supported the new government came to be called "royalists. As the Cortes instituted liberal reforms and worked on drafting a constitution, a new division appeared among royalists.
Conservatives often called " absolutists " in the historiography did not want to see any innovations in government, while liberals supported them.
These differences would become more acute after the restoration of Ferdinand VII, because the king opted to support the conservative position. It was not clear which political units which should replace the empire, and there were no new national identities to replace the traditional sense of being Spaniards.
The original juntas of appealed first, to sense of being Spanish, which was juxtaposed against the French threat; second, to a general American identity, which was juxtaposed against the Peninsula which was lost to the French; and third, to a sense of belonging to the local province, the patria in Spanish.
Armed conflicts broke out between the provinces over the question of whether some provinces were to be subordinate to others in the manner that they had been under the crown. This rivalry also lead some regions to adopt the opposing political cause from their rivals.
Once in Spain Ferdinand VII realized that he had significant support from conservatives in the general population and the hierarchy of the Spanish Catholic Churchand so on May 4, he repudiated the Spanish Constitution of and ordered the arrest of liberal leaders who had created it on May Ferdinand justified his actions by stating that the Constitution and other changes had been made by a Cortes assembled in his absence and without his consent.
He also declared all of the juntas and constitutions written in Spanish America invalid and restored the former law codes and political institutions.
Most Spanish Americans were moderates who decided to wait and see what would come out of the restoration of normalcy. In fact in areas of New Spain, Central America and Quito, governors found it expedient to leave the elected constitutional ayuntamientos in place for several years in order to prevent conflict with the local society.
The most dramatic example of transAtlantic collaboration is perhaps Francisco Javier Mina 's expedition to Texas and northern Mexico in and Spanish Americans in royalist areas who were committed to independence had already joined guerrilla movements.
Ferdinand's actions did set areas outside of the control of the royalist armies on the path to full independence. The governments of these regions, which had their origins in the juntas of —and even moderates there who had entertained a reconciliation with the crown—now saw the need to separate from Spain, if they were to protect the reforms they had enacted.The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
Through it, both the art and culture of Mexico were put at the service of society and the ideals of the Mexican Revolution. Muralist painters, many of whom were no strangers to political activism, used the walls of public buildings, palaces, universities, and libraries to tell both the story of the revolution and of the daily life of the people.
The biggest impact of the Latin American Wars for Independence was freedom from Spanish rule and national sovereignty for former Spanish colonies in Latin America, including the countries now known as Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay and Peru.
Revolutions of in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies, and for independence from Ottoman rule in Greece. Radical War or "Scottish Insurrection". – Ecuadorian War of Independence, fight between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito. The biggest impact of the Latin American Wars for Independence was freedom from Spanish rule and national sovereignty for former Spanish colonies in Latin America, including the countries now known as Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay and Peru. Review quizlet for Mexican History Quiz Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.
These wars for. Mexico was dominated by large landowners, army leaders and the Catholic Church. There was a divide in the ruling elite between conservative and liberals.
Bitter battles between the two groups led to revolts and the rise of dictators. Independence from Spain came suddenly for most of Latin America. Between and , most of Spain's former colonies had declared and won independence and had divided up into republics.
Sentiment had been growing in the colonies for some time, dating back to the American Revolution. Many revolutionary movements are similar in a way. The revolutionary movements in Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil have many similar characteristics.
All of these countries gained their independence from a European power. As many things are similar, there are also some differences in them. Wit.