Most people agree that animals have at least some moral status — that is why it is wrong to abuse pets or needlessly hurt other animals. This alone represents a shift from a past view where animals had no moral status and treating an animal well was more about maintaining human standards of dignity than respecting any innate rights of the animal.
Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers. Watson calls Juan Luis Vives the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita The Soul and Lifehe was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation.
By the s, psychologists began using positron emission tomography PET and later functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to image the brain while monitoring tasks involving attention. Because this expensive equipment was generally only available in hospitals, psychologists sought cooperation with neurologists.
Psychologist Michael Posner then already renowned for his seminal work on visual selective attention and neurologist Marcus Raichle pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention.
With the development of these technological innovations, neuroscientists became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology with these new brain imaging techniques. Although Intro animal experimentation is of older technique of electroencephalography EEG had long been used to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by cognitive psychophysiologiststhe ability of the newer techniques to actually measure precisely localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers.
Selective and visual[ edit ] See also: Selective auditory attention In cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe how visual attention operates.
These models may be considered loosely as metaphors which are used to describe internal processes and to generate hypotheses that are falsifiable. Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-stage process. In the second stage, attention is concentrated to a specific area of the visual scene i.
The first of these models to appear in the literature is the spotlight model. The term "spotlight" was inspired by the work of William Jameswho described attention as having a focus, a margin, and a fringe.
Surrounding the focus is the fringe of attention, which extracts information in a much more crude fashion i. This fringe extends out to a specified area, and the cut-off is called the margin.
The second model is called the zoom-lens model and was first introduced in This size-change mechanism was inspired by the zoom lens one might find on a camera, and any change in size can be described by a trade-off in the efficiency of processing.
At this phase, descriptions of the objects in a visual scene are generated into structural units; the outcome of this parallel phase is a multiple-spatial-scale structured representation.
Selective attention intervenes after this stage to select information that will be entered into visual short-term memory. As Rastophopoulos summarizes the debate: Attention is identified as one of the three major co-active processes of the working brain. Luria published his well-known book The Working Brain in as a concise adjunct volume to his previous book Higher Cortical Functions in Man.
In this volume, Luria summarized his three-part global theory of the working brain as being composed of three constantly co-active processes which he described as the; 1 Attention system, 2 Mnestic memory system, and 3 Cortical activation system.
The two books together are considered by Homskaya's account as "among Luria's major works in neuropsychology, most fully reflecting all the aspects theoretical, clinical, experimental of this new discipline. Multitasking and divided[ edit ] See also: Human multitasking and Distracted driving Multitasking can be defined as the attempt to perform two or more tasks simultaneously; however, research shows that when multitasking, people make more mistakes or perform their tasks more slowly.
In divided attention, individuals attend or give attention to multiple sources of information at once at the same time or perform more than one task. Generally, classical research into attention investigated the ability of people to learn new information when there were multiple tasks to be performed, or to probe the limits of our perception c.
There is also older literature on people's performance on multiple tasks performed simultaneously, such as driving a car while tuning a radio  or driving while telephoning. This research reveals that the human attentional system has limits for what it can process: While speaking with a passenger is as cognitively demanding as speaking with a friend over the phone,  passengers are able to change the conversation based upon the needs of the driver.
For example, if traffic intensifies, a passenger may stop talking to allow the driver to navigate the increasingly difficult roadway; a conversation partner over a phone would not be aware of the change in environment.
There have been multiple theories regarding divided attention. One, conceived by Kahneman explains that there is a single pool of attentional resources that can be freely divided among multiple tasks. This model seems to be too oversimplified, however, due to the different modalities e.
The specific modality model was theorized by Navon and Gopher in However, more recent research using well controlled dual-task paradigms points at the importance of tasks. In contrast, when one of the tasks involves object detection, no interference is observed.
As an alternative, resource theory has been proposed as a more accurate metaphor for explaining divided attention on complex tasks.Complete teaching solutions give you and your students the best tools for learning. Integrated hardware, software, and curriculum systems allow students to record data from their own bodies, animal, or tissue preps to learn principles of life science physiology.
Learning AI if You Suck at Math — P5 — Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Nets in Plain English! Dr. Charu Chandrasekera, Executive Director - Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods Dr.
Charu Chandrasekera is the founding executive director, the primary architect responsible for developing the first Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods (CCAAM) from back-of-the-envelope to reality.
Brief Summary of Philosophy and Animals Alissa Branham () By Jebulon (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons. Contemporary animal rights and animal welfare advocates often make use of philosophers in the articulation and .
The Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences is a major veterinary educational, medical and research institution located in College Station, Texas. Examples of animal experimentation include product testing, use of animals as research models and as educational tools.
Within each of these categories, there are .