Maslow felt as though conditioning theories did not adequately capture the complexity of human behavior. In a paper called A Theory of Human Motivation, Maslow presented the idea that human actions are directed toward goal attainment. The four levels lower-order needs are considered physiological needs, while the top level of the pyramid is considered growth needs. The lower level needs must be satisfied before higher-order needs can influence behavior.
According to Maslow, self-actualization is a process by which individuals may ascend a hierarchy of needs that is linear as opposed to dialectical. The higher levels of this hierarchy are reached by psychologically robust and healthy self-actualizing individuals. In addition, Maslow contends that these self-actualizing individuals are highly creative and demonstrate a capacity to resolve dichotomies inherent in ultimate contraries, such as life versus death and freedom versus determinism, as examples.
Essentially, this argument stresses the synergism of dialectical transcendence implicit in the type of personal growth that Maslow contends is self-actualizing.
Further, it is argued that one need not transcend these levels of self-actualization in directly linear and subsequent stages.
Lastly, it is postulated that all creative individuals might be capable of self-actualization, independent of their mental health or lack of it. He stated this type of growth to be a linear escalation of fulfillment that is represented by a pyramidal hierarchy. The levels that he describes express these needs and their order of hierarchical transcendence.
These needs in order of hierarchical ascension are as follow: Physiological needs represented by hunger, thirst, air and sleep; Safety needs, reflecting the needs for security and protection; Note that safety needs become prominent in situations of social or political instability ; The needs for belongingness and love; these needs can take two forms: According to Maslow, creativity is a prominent quality in self-actualizers.
It should be noted that self-actualizing people and the needs depicted on his pyramidal hierarchy are descriptively explained by Maslow, as opposed to a explicitly stated in terms of how the fulfillment of them emerges. Maslow contends that the hierarchical needs must be fulfilled in order of more basic needs to the highest level of needs, or being values, stated to be needs associated with personal meaning in life.
The needs within this hierarchy, according to Maslow, must be obtained in a stepwise fashion, such that each level, from survival needs to being values, must be fulfilled at a prior level in order to be fulfilled at the subsequent, higher level. It is the contention within this essay that such needs may be fulfilled in any order, given that needs relating to survival may be compromised in a long-term situation even while an individual may be more or less fulfilled in terms of needs for meaning.
Additionally, confrontation with life and death may represent a dichotomy that the individual at this point in life is trying to resolve. Seen in this sense, the self-actualized or self-actualizing person may find meaning in confrontation with death and the dialectical contrast between life and death, in particular.
A confrontation with life and death may represent a dichotomy that the individual at this point in life is trying to resolve. Seen in this sense, the self-actualized or self-actualizing person may find meaning in confrontation with death, when safety or physiological needs are threatened.
This may be the case regarding the needs of a person who is imprisoned, who finds meaning in his life in spite of incarceration, even while his life may be threatened. Such may have been true of Nelson Mandela, for example, who maintained a sense of meaning and values in the context of imprisonment.
Likewise, the individual, Viktor Frankl, was a Holocaust survivor who never relinquished his search that culminated in meaning.
Gandhi can be compared with the self-actualizing individual postulated by Maslow. Through non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi moved India to independence, and he inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world, in spite of whatever difficulties he endured in terms of satisfying his more basic needs.
Personal needs for meaning, such as spiritual needs, may be fulfilled in any circumstance of life. It should be noted that Maslow would certainly agree that these individuals were self-actualized.
Persons of evident psychopathology, such as Sylvia Plath, might be recognized to be among self-actualizing individuals.Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory Essay; Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay Words | 6 Pages.
It is an unsatisfied need that drives human behavior to exert effort to reach the goals. For example we study because we are lack of knowledge; we work because we are lack of money.
Abraham Maslow essays Abraham Maslow is a well know theorist and psychologist know for his theory on Human Motivation, more specifically Maslow 's needs Hierarchy theory. Abraham Maslow "noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his career, was that some needs take precedence over oth. Essay title: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory The Hierarchy of needs theory is a formation of the needs of an individual person.
Basically this hierarchy are based on five level which is classified into Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love/Belonging needs, Esteem needs and Self-actualization needs/5(1). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory consisting of a five-tier pyramid developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow.
Bryan E. Robinson has adapted this scale to consider what needs writers must satisfy to move their dreams of writing success up the charts. Summary: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a pyramid.
Originator: Abraham Maslow in Key terms: deficiency needs, growth needs, . Published: Mon, 5 Dec Introduction. This section of the thesis is the literature review. It discusses the theories and models which were used as references in this research.